City College of San Francisco Judo Club
Judo practice has many rules of etiquette, manners, and ethics. Above all, judo students learn important values of respect, respect for their instructors, or sensei; their partners, both senior and junior to them; the officials and referees of judo; the families and friends of judo classmates; and above all, themselves.
Each dojo has its own code of conduct, spelling out the dos and don'ts of behavior. Judo students learn to be attentive, and develop a good work ethic that they can carry with them into others parts of their lives. Judo students learn modesty and fairplay. Values related to sincerity, courage, and commitment are fostered through the brutally honest actions of attack and defense.
Judo students learn to persevere in a physically and mentally demanding training that fosters emotional control and diligence. Judo students greet one another with respect and courtesy. In short, judo students learn much of the social etiquette necessary to become solid citizens of the world.
2017 International Judo Federation New Rules
INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION REFEREE RULES
Please REMEMBER that:
Evaluation of the points:
Immobilizations (Osaekomi Time):
Summary: While penalties awarded during the regular contest period will be tracked on the scoreboard, the penalties will be used to determine the contest winner only during Golden Score, except in the case of direct or cumulative Hansokumake.
Summary: Total Shido penalties are being reduced from four to three with the third Shido becoming Hansokumake. Five non-standard grips (pistol, pocket, cross guard, one-sided, and belt, are now being allowed for use, provided that the grips are used to prepare or setup a throwing action. The athlete has some time (≈3 seconds) to setup/prepare for attack, the penalty is no longer immediate/simultaneous. Any use of the five grips for defensive purposes will be immediately awarded a Shido, as per the current IJF rules. Fingers inside of the sleeve or pant leg will continue to be immediately assessed a Shido.
Unconventional Kumikata such as cross gripping, one side gripping (2 hands on the same side) and belt gripping will not be penalized as long as Tori is preparing an attack. If any of these five grips (cross, one-side/same side, belt, pocket/cat's paw, & pistol) are used to be defensive, then Shido is given immediately. The athlete has some time to setup/prepare for attack, the penalty is no longer immediate/simultaneous.
Recognizing the difficulty of preparing a throwing action, the time between Kumikata and making an attack is extended to 45 seconds (as long as the attitude is positive and the competitor is preparing to execute a technique). This is after the athletes have obtained normal/standard Kumikata. The athletes should be given more time and opportunity to prepare/setup for an attack. This may be as much as 45 seconds. But, if there is a situation where
Summary: Bridging to avoid a back landing will be now penalized with Hansoku Make to Uke versus being awarded Ippon to tori. While bridging will be a direct Hansoku Make, the competitor will only lose the match (similar to head diving). Landing on both elbows to avoid a back landing will now be awarded a Waza-ari in order to prevent injuries. Landing on one elbow will not be scored. Any action to avoid competing or purposefully attempting to avoid competing to utilize time on the clock will be considered acting against the spirit of judo and will be penalized with Hansoku Make.
Anti judo will be immediately penalized as an act against the spirit of Judo. No change. If an athlete is running to avoid competing in a judo contest or to escape from the opponent, that competitor will be considered as acting against the spirit of judo and will be penalized with Hansoku Make.
Throw and counter-attack:
Summary: In the case of a Kaeshiwaza situation (attack and counter-attack), the first competitor landing will be considered as thrown. If an appropriate score can be given, the referee will award a score. If the landing is unclear or a simultaneous landing, no Score will be awarded. Any actions taking place after landing will not be considered a Score, but will be considered as newaza.
Summary: Competitors will fix their judo gis between the time when Matte is called. The referee will not signal to fix judo gis, rather all competitors are expected to simply fix their judo gis when the referee indicates Matte.
ENTER JIGORO KANO
Jigoro Kano was born on October 28, 1860; six years and seven months after Japan was forced to open its doors to the West by Perry's second visit in March 1854. Japan was in a state of turmoil as it struggled to adjust to the rest of the world that had not been asleep. In 1867, Emperor Meiji was installed and was the symbol of modernization. Tokugawa Yoshinobu was the last of the Tokugawa shoguns but was forced to resign and with him the feudal system is also abolished.
1877 marks the entry of Kano into Toyo Teikoku University, now (Tokyo University). Kano's education to this point was extensive for the period. He was trained in Confucian classics and studied English under Mitsukuri Shuhei, a renowned thinker of the day. Much of what Kano thought can be easily read for he kept much of his notes in English. He also had a penchant for math but what he wanted to do dearly was to develop his body, or at any rate defend himself for he was slight and frail in stature. As a means of physical culture and training he enrolled in a jujitsu school, much to his father’s dismay.
Hachinosuke Fukuda, grandfather to famed 10th dan, Keiko Fukuda, was Jigoro Kano's first jujitsu instructor. Tenshinshinyo ryu jujitsu was mostly comprised of pins, chokes and locks, and was practiced through formal movement patterns known as kata or form. Kano was so adept after just two years of training he was asked to perform for the visiting Ulysses S. Grant in 1879.
Wanting to learn more he enrolled in Kito ryu jujitsu in 1881. Kito-ryu was markedly different from his earlier style called Tenshinshinyo ryu for it concentrated in throws and practice did not rely solely on kata but on free movement. Tsunetoshi Iikubo was the instructor and had a great influence on Kano for he stressed the soul as well as the body.
1882 was a momentous year. Japan built its first railroad, and Jigoro Kano at the young age of twenty two founded the Kodokan. It was a humble beginning with only nine students in a ten tatami” room at Eishoji Temple. One tatami is equal to 1meter by 2 meters.
But Kano is persistent, intelligent, and dedicated. Trying to decide on a system of training for their officers, in 1886 the Tokyo police force sponsored a tournament in which some of the leading schools of the day were invited to participate. The Kodokan, with the exception of a draw or two, wins all other matches and sparks an interest in the public eye.
Jigoro Kano, educator, statesman, and founder of modern judo, did much in the development of Japan’s fledgling, Meiji era education system.
Kano was a leader amongst men and possessed the right qualities at the right time. Trained in the classics, yet studied and was adept at English, loved mathematics, but more than these individual skills was his ability to fuse ideas together that created a better sport. Always the valiant eclectic, he was not afraid to try something new; at 22 years of age, he was appointed as a professor at Gakushuin University. In addition to this position he founded not only the Kodokan but Kanojuku, a preparatory school, and also the Koubunkan an English language school all within the same year, 1882. In 1899 he founded the Koubungakuin a school for foreign students from China. Noticing a lack of an official sports organization in Japan in 1911, he creates the Japan Athletic Association.
Between 1882-1911, Kano begins to excel as an educator and in four years time became the head instructor at Gakushuin University. 1889 marked Kano's first of many trips abroad where he studied European educational systems as an Attaché of the Imperial Household. As if he didn't have enough to do in the world, Kano becomes the principal of a high school in Kumamoto in 1891. Then in 1893, returns to Tokyo and assumes the presidency of a teachers college (now Tsukuba University).
Through the years he distinguishes himself as an educator, physical educator, statesman, writer, philosopher and linguist. In 1902 and 1905, he represents the Ministry of Education and visits China. His college studies in Political Science and literature aid him greatly in establishing him as a statesman.
All these abilities came to fruition in 1909 when an invitation from the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to Japan to participate in the Olympic movement resulted in the only possible choice for a representative, Jigoro Kano. Thus, he became the first Asian member of the IOC. Later in his career he is accorded entry into The House of Peers and given the rank of Count.
The Development of Judo
Japan was quickly making strides to catch up with the rest of the world after having been asleep for some two hundred and sixty five years. The basic mood of the nation at that time was “Out with old in with the new.” Thus, jujitsu was considered out of step with the times.
It took a man of action to breathe life back into an art form that was about to be discarded. There were very few who could explain by words, what many a master of the arts intuitively understood when executing phenomenal maneuvers. Nor were there individuals who could translate into words the common denominators that made these arts important not in terms of self-defense but of living life. Kano fortunately could and did.
To more accurately assess the thinking of Jigoro Kano and the evolution of how he came to explain judo as he did, one would have to study his writings, the dates they were written, and study them within the context of the social events that may have influenced his thinking.
The Meiji restoration era, nationalism, empire building, his education, and his travels abroad shaped the words that explained judo and its broader purpose.
Japan had just emerged out of the isolationism imposed by the Tokugawa regime. It found itself at the back of the line in technological advances and understood it was in a very weak position. It wanted to understand the West, and needed to find a way to quickly catch up with the rest of the world least they be victimized by their neighbors. To aid in this endeavor the newly installed emperor Meiji dedicated his efforts to modernization.
Large scale government reforms were made in which education, media (then Newspapers), transportation, communication, the making of a national army were instituted in an effort to create a strong national consciousness that could stand proudly amongst neighboring nations.
Things were moving fast in Japan and much was being accomplished in a very short time. Within 27 years after the installation of Emperor Meiji, Japan had become an industrialized power. So much so that in Asia it was the dominant power and proved itself in battles with China in 1894 and Russia in 1904, coming out the winner in both instances.
In this climate of success and of building national pride it was important to maintain strong bodies and good discipline. It fell to Jigoro Kano the educator to add to the strength of his nation by incessantly writing and publishing articles emphasizing the benefits of judo and the martial arts, not only as a means of strengthening the body, but through its practice learning many valuable lessons that could be applied to daily life.
In a sense the spirit of the samurai was kept alive through the reintroduction of the martial arts through education. His writings and philosophy of judo as a sport of far reaching qualities differentiated it from jujitsu.
Inherent in the activity was the idea that if one used his body efficiently, although he may be smaller, he could overcome a larger adversary who did not. This concept not only applied to the diminutive Jigoro Kano but appealed to the small island nation of Japan as its foes seemed always larger. Brousse and Matsumoto in Judo a Sport and Way of Life wrote, “He sensed and developed the guiding principle behind jujitsu where others had seen a collection of techniques.” The ultimate goal was to make the most efficient use of mental and physical energy. It is little wonder that he was to come up with the maxim, Seiryoku Zenyo, “the best use of one’s energy, vigor, vitality”, an ideal which is essential to any vigilant culture or nation much less a sport.
The Success of Judo Rather Than Jujitsu
Many will say that the biggest difference that led to the success of judo rather than jujitsu in Japan was the 1886 contest held by the police in which Kodokan judo prevailed over all the other systems of the day. This may be true in part but there have been many victories by one organization over another that have not lasted the test of time. One of the overriding reasons for the success of judo was Kano's position as a major player in the development of education during the Meiji era. He was well educated, experienced, and traveled abroad specifically to learn about western educational systems. He was the expert and he was in charge of developing the country’s teachers; teachers who would of course learn judo at school, then turn around and teach it at a middle school, high school, or college. To this day judo is taught in schools throughout Japan as part of the physical education program.
Another reason for judo's success was Jigoro Kano himself. He was a tireless recruiter of judo practitioners and supporters. Everywhere he went he spoke of the many attributes of judo: fitness, character building, economy of motion, self-actualization, self-defense, and a model for a way of life. He himself was the embodiment of the attributes of which he spoke. Kano also had a keen awareness of timing and knowledge of who were the change agents who he could entrust to influence the masses.
He utilized the opportunity to speak with leaders such as Pierre de Coubertin, Originator of the Modern Olympic Games, John Dewey, one of the architects of modern education in the United States and many others. These people outside of his country were introduced to judo, not just for it physical characteristics, but more so for its positive effects on the improvement of the quality of life for society through its practice.
Jigoro Kano’s command of the English language should not be forgotten here, for it opened the door to introducing the then little known sport of judo to the west. According to Naoki Murata, head librarian at the Kodokan. “Many of Kano’s notes of judo were written not in Japanese but in English.”
Although it is not often mentioned as a reason for judo's rise as an exportable item we must not discount the effect of the two wars that suddenly placed Japan in the forefront of public curiosity. First China, then Russia, two large countries succumbing to the smaller Japan. Moreover, Russia although having its own internal problems, was once considered a white European power. Could it be that some secrets out of the East, could be used to win the war over its larger opponents? These same secrets could also be found in this mysterious activity called judo? Here too, the larger individual could be overcome by the smaller. At any rate people flocked to see this wondrous activity that the devotees were eager to teach. Especially keen on its investigation were the armed services, police, and the elite.
On a more clouded note, the ability of judo and jujitsu to infiltrate the upper crust of society gave it importance in the Meiji era as a means of understanding foreign cultures and was sometimes used as an unofficial information highway through which crucial bits of information gleaned from casual conversations aided in making major policy or strategic decisions. For foreign countries, it also allowed a glimpse into Japanese culture as well. Thus, the exportability of judo and jujitsu was yet another factor to consider.
While many looked upon judo and jujitsu as a means of unarmed combat Dr. Kano came to view his judo as a ready-made educational tool; first to develop his nation and to eventually benefit the world. In its practice, he could see economy of motion, the interplay of individual forces creating something bigger than its individual parts, the development of the individual into something he would not otherwise be, but for the practice of this physical activity. Kano's broader view of this activity, when he compared it to other sports, prompted modifications that could help it survive and be included as a sport and an educational tool. Hence, methods of falling were improved and practiced, dangerous techniques were excluded from its practice, rules of gamesmanship began to replace the air of dueling to determine superiority. These issues aided the acceptance and transformed judo from a cultural martial art to a modern sport.
JUDO’S SPREAD AROUND THE WORLD
In various parts of the world as practitioners of judo fortuitously or purposely ventured out, there was always a curious audience. One of the first to take judo outside of Japan was in 1903 when Yoshiaki Yamashita was invited to the United States by Railroad magnate Graham Hill and taught at Annapolis Naval Academy. Included on his list of many important persons of the era, he was instructor to President Theodore Roosevelt who eventually earned a brown belt. A brown belt then was a very respectable rank during the time when there was not much inflation of rank. Yoshiaki Yamashita eventually received the very first 10th Dan awarded by Dr. Kano in 1935.
In 1905, judo appeared in Great Britain in the person of Yukio Tani. There are plethoras of tales about this colorful individual as he traveled about the British Isles making a living by taking on all comers. Sometimes he would have easy opponents and sometimes not. Losing some but winning most. Sometimes he was sober other times he was not. Nevertheless, it was always interesting to see a smaller man confront larger men and come out on top.
Tani was followed by Gunji Koizumi one year later. Koizumi was instrumental in the development of British judo and was the founder of the Budokwai in London in 1918. Both Tani and Koizumi were instructors there. Originally they were jujitsu enthusiasts and only after a visit by Dr. Kano in 1920 did they switch over to become members of the Kodokan. Both were also present at the incipience of the European Judo Union in 1937 when the first European Judo Championships in Dresden, Germany. The events were to inspire other continents to do likewise and the result was to eventually culminate in the creation of a world championship.
The founding of French judo is credited to Mikinosuke Kawaishi who arrived in 1935 and introduced judo through a system based on numbers and French words rather than on difficult to remember or pronounce Japanese terminology. This plus the ingenious colored belt system did much to popularize judo in France. France lists over 500,000 registered judokas and is the second largest judo population in the world.
In the United States during the turn of the century large pockets of Japanese settlements could be found. They were in Hawaii, then not yet a state, Seattle, and Los Angeles. Many of the immigrants left Japan in search of job opportunities and adventure. They brought with them their customs, language, and work ethics. They were successful particularly in two fields, farming, and fishing. Amongst the cultural activities of dance and flower arrangement was judo.
1907 saw the establishment of the first permanent dojo with Takugoro Ito as the instructor in Seattle, Washington. Ito was later to go to Los Angeles and is credited with the establishing of the first dojo in Los Angeles. It was named Rafu Dojo and while it is no longer there, as of 2002, the restructured 1920's wooden Seattle dojo is still standing. Between 1903 and the present, judo has spread eastward across the United States to include all races and creeds.
In 1964 the First U.S. Olympic Judo Team was represented by a Japanese American lightweight, a Jewish American middleweight, an American Indian light heavyweight, and Black American heavyweight.
Judo Organizations in the United States
Associations of black belt holders (Yudanshakai) developed first, followed by the formation of the first national organization. This was accomplished in 1952. Originally the organization was known as the JBBF or Judo Black Belt Federation but was subsequently changed to The United States Judo Federation (USJF). The USJF's strength lies in the clustering of different dojos to provide a quality program which is grass roots oriented. In 1965, a second national organization was formed from what was originally the Armed Forces Judo Association, now known as the United States Judo Association (USJA). It was also grass roots oriented, well organized paper wise, and gave the individual clubs and their instructors more autonomy because they were usually in isolated areas of the United States where services were hard to come by. In 1980 through an act of Congress The National Sports Act of 1979 United States Judo Incorporated (USJI) was formed. It then became the direct link to the United States Olympic Committee and replaced the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU). Ultimately the two National Organizations, USJF and USJA became “A” class members and each individual State organizations as “B” members of USJI. USJI has since changed its name to USA Judo.
One of the important principles in jujitsu was a principle of “Jiu no ri.” The principle of giving way rather than opposing force. For example, if a force of 10 units were in direct opposition to another force of 3 units then, the 10 units of force would be 7 units. If instead of being in direct opposition, the 3 units returned in the same direction as the 10 unit force, a force could be turned to the advantage of 13 units. This was an explanation that was often use in reference to the application of a throw, where someone larger was rushing forward to attack and a smaller person turned and used this onrushing force against the opponent.
Unfortunately, this principle did not always work well in all instances. In some examples where a choke or an arm bar, giving way may not produce the best results. Search as he did Jigoro Kano could not find a universal principle, which would work in every instance.
Kano realize through his long and arduous practice of the art that he found himself changed. He was much stronger and healthier. Because of his physical prowess, he had more confidence in himself. With more confidence, his demeanor also changed. This led him to believe the physical activity of judo could improve the character of the practitioner. Moreover, if jujitsu could improve one person why not many persons, better yet a large group, or benefit society.
Basically, these were some of the stumbling blocks Kano solved, leading to the idea and formulation of judo as a mental as well as a physical activity.
Small Judo --- Large Judo
From almost the very start, serious thought was put into what we so loosely know as the gentle way, judo. According to Asian studies professor, David Waterhouse of the University of Toronto, “The name judo, the pliant way, comes from Kito-ryu, having been long used in Jikishin-ryu, an old branch of it.” The use of the suffix do in judo has ties to Taoism and Buddhism and in Chinese characters when written means road or way. According to Professor Naoki Murata, Kodokan historian, “The reason that the ju of judo was kept by Professor Kano was out of respect for tradition.” Together judo took on a different flavor. Not only was there a tradition of power but thought, philosophical thought that could aid in the development of a thin emerging nation.
In the case of judo, its meeting was that through its practice, one would develop concepts, skills, and attitudes that would assist one in everyday life situations. Dr. Kano in his writings also emphasizes the idea of small judo versus large judo. Small judo is concerned only with techniques and building of the body. Large judo is mindful of the pursuit of the purpose of life: the soul and the body used in the most effective manner for a good result.
One of Dr. Kano’s more interesting statements concerning education, and in particular, physical education was, “The body is the instrument for the purpose of life, without which there is nothing.” Such a simple but ever so profound statement. The implication is that care must be taken to ensure its proper functioning. In addition, that the mind cannot function, experience, or learn, without having a body. The body is the package in which the mind functions and that their functioning is integrally linked. One Japanese word for experience, taiken, means to experience with the body.
THE JUDO MAXIMS
Although Dr. Kano was widely known as a scholar, there was a side of him which favored experience over knowledge purely based on books. Many of his maxims are derived from life experiences that led to a certain conclusion. David Waterhouse, in his paper, “Kano Jigoro and The Beginning of the Judo Movement” writes, “As far as I can judge, Kano’s thinking evolved to meet the changing circumstances of the movement, which he created”. He was a pragmatist (in a loose sense of the word); and he mistrusted abstract principles, based on book learning. In a note written in 1902 or 1903, he made a distinction between learning, which is alive and learning, which is dead. The former was a practical use, the later serve no purpose. “If one reads books, excessively, even if one does many things, what one knows may or may not be useful, depending on the circumstances.”
“MUTUAL WELFARE AND BENEFIT”
The maxim, Mutual Welfare and Benefit Ji-ta Kyoei, can be thought of as referring to Kano’s concept of the interdependence of body and mind, but more importantly here, the interdependence of one person working with another person. It was the resulting revelation of years of physical practice that enable Kano to understand the benefits of mutual encounters. In Buddhism, the two paths are ji-riki (self strength) and ta-riki (other's strength). In judo, there is also the strength of the individual, which is pitted against the strength of others resulting in a positive change.
An example is the mutual benefit found in judo’s randori practice, which is done, not by oneself, but with another and results in the eventual development of both individuals. Judo is mindful of this resulting benefit from the practice of two individuals, and thus bow in gratitude and respect before and after the practice session.
JI-KO NO KANSEI
A seldom quoted maxim is that of Ji-ko no Kansei or self-perfection. Most likely ignored because of the seemingly egocentric motives at the time of judo’s mass importation into the United States just after World War II. In addition, the other maxim of Mutual Welfare and Benefit, already has inherent in the word mutual, implication that oneself as well as another is involved.
Today, we are told that we must improve ourselves. Scores of self-help books attests to this fact. The dilemma, however, arises when one asked, “How is it that you can have both self centered act and mutual welfare and benefit at the same time? Doesn't someone lose out when one person thinks of improving himself?” Kano explained it thus. “Needless to say, there is a gap between utopia and the sometimes reality of things. Let's say that rather than two individuals we think on a larger scale and have two countries at war and one of them is your country. Whose side would you favor then?” He continues, “Build yourself first, then you may help others.”
In the short-term, one side they suffer a loss, but both have gained from the experience, and at a later time under different conditions the outcome may be different. One need only think of our next randori practice session or shiai tournament. Who will win? What was gained? Competition tends to breed excellence, and in the long run there is mutual gain from the encounter.
Seiryoku Zenyo is commonly translated to mean Maximum Efficiency with Minimum Effort. When Dr. Kano was still a student he found his roommate would always finish his homework earlier and in addition get better grades. Why was it that he had the same amount of homework, as his roommate, same instructors, yet this result? He decided to observe his roommate which eventually resulted in the maxim of Seiryoku Zenyo, maximum efficiency with minimum effort. He states, “In order to study the maxim of Seiryoku Zenyo we must first know what energy is. Energy is life force or the essential force for living. A correct use of this energy will result in maximum efficiency with minimum effort.”
As per energy expenditure and a judo throw, do we expend more energy to throw a person if he is off-balance or on balance? Do we expend more or less energy if we have our center of gravity above or below our opponent’s center of gravity? Do we use energy more effectively if we do the technique quickly or slowly? Is it possible that there is a more efficient way of applying energy? Could one say from this use of energy, one could learn and understand the principle of maximal efficiency with minimum effort?
It is through practical experiences that judoka may learn lessons. The lessons may have to be translated from the practice of judo into words and usable concepts but the body experiences of judo are kept for reference and understood at a very basic level. Here are a few concepts that are realized through practice, and with a little imagination can be translated into usable concepts for everyday living, large judo:
1. Over a period of time and through diligent practice, one can become better at judo.(at a hobby, sport, work, etc.)
2. There are subtle techniques that allow one person to do better than another person who does not have technique.
3. Although one may not be so skilled to begin with, if one has heart one may still succeed.
4. There are different types of strengths in each of us.
5. Over a period of time we rely on different strengths at different times.
6. That energy utilized in a successful ways can instill confidence.
While different ideals may abound within philosophy, it is more an ongoing process rather than a set of immutable ideas. Therefore, it is with the philosophical thoughts surrounding judo. Initially in the martial art of jujitsu, the sole thought was how to kill, maim, or control. At that time, it entailed a philosophy based on survival by hand-to-hand combat. With the opening of Japan, it had to change or disappear. Kano remolded jujitsu. This replacement became a way of life, with lessons in its practice that could be applied to everyday life. He named it judo.
The emphasis of the goals and philosophy of judo have been broadened and while there is a current emphasis towards the idea of judo being a sport concerned mainly with winning and losing, there are still other elements to judo which keep it grounded to the grass roots development of individuals into productive citizens.
Beginners Guide to Judo
Beginner's Guide to Judo
It is an exciting sport, where a split-second can mean victory or defeat as athletes aiming to score the ultimate ippon. Scores can be registered for throws, holding techniques or strangling techniques, whilst penalties are given to the athletes for breaking rules.
Judo contests see two athletes compete on each tatami (mat), one in a white judogi (judo suit) and the second in a blue judogi.
The referee will then ask the athletes on to the tatami. The athletes will bow as they enter the tatami and the referee will call hajime (begin) to start the contest. During the contest the referee will stop the contest with the word matte(stop) when matte is called the contest time clock will stop and starts when hajime (begin) is called. The contest last for five minutes and if score are level at the end of this period, the contest enters golden score.
Ippon is the biggest score in judo and scoring it ends the contest. It is shown on the scoreboard as 100.
Ippon can be scored in one of four ways:
A waza-ari is shown on the scoreboard as a score of 10 and can be scored in two ways:
Shido are penalty scores. There are numerous ways to collect Shido. An athlete can get a shido from not taking grip (kumi-kata) and not attacking to disregarding the referee. At the end of normal time in the contest, the player with the fewest shido will be declared the winner
An athlete will get Hansoku-Make if they are awarded four shidos or by committing a serious offence. Again there are numerous ways to get Hansoku-Make. These include all grips below the belt, all type of leg grabs and any action against the spirit of judo.
Golden Score (Extra Time)
There is no time limit to golden score, if the contest continues into Golden Score (due to a draw) after the allocated time. The first receiving a shido loses the contest or the first to score with a technique will win the contest.
The Philosophy of Judo
by Dr. Sachio Ashida, Hachidan (8th degree)
THE PHILOSOPHY OF JUDO
by Dr. Sachio Ashida, Hachidan (8th degree)
an excerpted from an article of the same name published in the 1975 USJF Official Judo Handbook
The average student is eager to learn the physical and technical side of Judo. The ukemi, nage-waza, osaekomi-waza and other forms of kata take up much of his attention. The "philosophy" seems to be pushed aside, forgotten or neglected.
It is only upon witnessing the courtesy, the simple ritual of bowing before and after randori or a match that he realizes there is more to the sport than just working out or fighting. As he advances, he inadvertently is teaching a technique to his lesser-experienced partner. He then realizes the teacher/student concept of Judo. It is through these experiences and learning procedures that the student learns the general philosophy of Judo. Nevertheless, the mystery of the sport motivates him further to study and fortify this little known area of the philosophy.
He reads and hears Jigoro Kano's two famous principles of "Maximum Efficiency, and Mutual Welfare and Benefit." Kano outlined these two ultimate objects of Judo - the perfection of human character by his form of training methods using the above two principles. "Maximum Efficiency" means that whatever is planned, one should do with optimum use of mental and physical energy
In the practice and competition of Judo the player learns to throw with a minimum of effort but using to his benefit the opponent's weakness, momentum and mistakes. His throws consist of a circle; his defense and counter-throws are made using the opponent's circle of the throwing technique.
The application of this knowledge, by hard training, increases his proficiency and efficiency. By these methods, the principle of maximum efficiency is eventually mastered. The principle of mutual benefit and welfare takes longer to learn. This means that all students should help each other in advancing through judo training. This principle brings out love, respect and self-control - qualities manifested by many Judo masters.
By following these two principles, the student will progress toward his goal. But what is his goal? Each student must establish his own goal in life. The level of his goal depends upon his motivation. His Judo teacher may exemplify a model he wishes to emulate. Through Judo training, he can attain the characteristics of his teacher if the latter is a true Judo man. But what is the character of a true Judo man?
Many instructors use the same training methods but those who are not themselves developed morally and ethically achieve nothing. Any system of instruction depends on the excellence of those who are instructing. Proper Judo training produces respect, courage, patience, humility, flexibility, enthusiasm and reliability. As one judoka stated, "these are the characteristics that are most prized by all of humanity. The students must remember that many teachers fail to produce these traits in their students but the instructor never stops trying.
Judo, when learned and practiced properly, is a sport that "builds character." The Judo community; however, feels that Judo and its philosophy contributes more in that it lets the student achieve his goals in life a little faster but not necessarily more easily. It is up to the student to train regularly, to discipline himself, to respect his peers and superiors, to participate in tournaments, to teach the lesser experienced and to study and learn the culture of judo.
Guide to Understanding Judo
HISTORY OF JUDO
Judo is an art and a sport, a means of defense, and equally, a means of offense. Like Jujitsu, its forerunner, judo is a method of turning an opponent's strength against himself, thus defeating him in the most efficient manner. Jujitsu was practiced seriously for many years in olden days as a means of killing or seriously injuring one's opponent, but with the advent of modern warfare the need for hand-to-hand combat diminished, until the sport almost died out.
In 1882 Mr. Jigoro Kano, a student of Jujitsu, founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo. There he formulated a new system of bare-hand fighting which he named "judo". Judo means "gentle way", and utilizes the very best of the jujitsu techniques, eliminating the harmful ones, and modifying others so that they can be practiced safely.
In a narrow sense Judo can be defined as the study of the maximum use of the body and mind for the purposes of attack and defense. In a wider sense the principles of judo can be applied to all affairs of life. The ultimate objective of judo is the perfection of one's self by the systematic training of the mind and body through exercise so that each works in harmony with the other.
Judo is intended for the harmonious development of the body by bringing all groups of muscles into play, and in that it uses the mental abilities to supplement and advance one's skill in the sport.
The judo player's mind and body must work as one, always alert to the demands of the moment, his body able to move flexibly and with agility. Such automatic command of one's movement prepares the player to meet and avoid any threat. Although the proper use of the body is important, one's mental attitude is equally important for self-control and for grasping the opportunity.
Some students believe that judo is only a matter of learning a few tricks that can then be applied for self-defense. You may be enthusiastic at the beginning, but when you find you cannot make as much progress in a short time as they had expected they drop out. But as in all other activities, there are grades of skill in judo. Slow and steady progress will take the student where he wants to go. Practice in judo goes on continuously for many years, and it is possible to keep on learning, no matter how long one studies.
It is essential in daily practice to apply the proper techniques at the proper time. It is also important to train our minds as well. Even those who can perform well in practice often lose in a contest because they cannot control themselves under the demand of circumstances. Fear, anxiety, and irritation at an opponent may act to keep one from seeing an opening or to waste one's strength at random. If an opponent seems dull, one is likely to underestimate him, thus leaving oneself off guard and liable to an unexpected defeat. This is due to an undisciplined mind. Therefore, a student of judo must train his mind as well as his body in order to be in full command of all his faculties at the necessary moments.
The Goals of Judo
The Goals of Judo
Judo has many faces--as a sport, self defense, exercise and philosophy. As a result, there are many goals that one can harbor through the practice of Judo. The most important goal, however, is the development of oneself as a person. To develop one’s character through Judo means to learn many of the same values, morals, and ethics passed on to the student from the instructor
These values can be summarized by the two motto's of Judo.
“Sei ryoku zen yo” - - to put our best efforts into everything
“Ji ta kyo ei” - - for the benefit of living with others harmoniously.
Judo teaches us to work as hard as we can, for the benefit of interpersonal relationships. These mottos can also be summarized by the last teachings of Jigoro Kano:
“Judo is the way to most efficiently use one’s mental and physical strength. By training, one should discipline and cultivate the body and spirit through the practice of techniques of offense and defense, thereby to master the essence of Judo. And, by these means, it is the ultimate goal of Judo to build oneself up to perfection and thereby benefit the world.”
Beyond the Black Belt
Beyond The Black Belt
Around 1930 Jigoro Kano created a new colored belt to recognize the special achievements of those reaching high Dan ranking black belts of 6th Dan or above. These Dan grades became known as the Kodansha, meaning "person of high rank", the "Ko" in this case meaning high, "Dan" meaning rank and "Sha" meaning person. However the actual recognition of Kodansha itself starts at 5th Dan, when it is deemed that a student has completed the school's curriculum or syllabus of Judo techniques.
Jigoro Kano chose to recognize the achievements of 6th, 7th, and 8th Dan black belts with a special "Obi" or belt, made of alternating red and white panels, known as the Kohaku Obi. The Japanese ideograph "Kohaku" may be directly translated as Red and White.
The Significance Of Red And White In Japanese Culture
The Genpei Wars between 1180 and 1185 were a conflict between the Taira andMinamoto clans, equally matched sides, in the late Heian period of Japan. These wars, however eventually, resulted in the downfall of the Taira clan and the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate under Minamoto Yorimoto in 1192.
The Taira clan was often referred to as Heike and the Minamoto clan as Genji. They were identifiable on the battlefield by the use of colored flags. The Heike used red flags and the Genji white flags.
Following this war and its aftermath, the colors red and white, of the Taira and Minamoto standards, were established respectively, as Japan's national colors. The white represented purity and peace, whilst the red represented not only the "Rising Sun" but the intensity within the Japanese people themselves, combined, the flag represented a national unity. This unity of colors represented the opposing sides of equal ability.
Opposing Sides Of Equal Ability
As a direct influence of this event, the Japanese began to use these two colors to represent opposing sides of equal ability, in just about any area of social cultural activity, whether through logical board games, sporting activities, Martial Arts or other areas of Japanese culture such as Chado (Tea ceremony) and Ikebana (Flower arranging).
These social cultural activities often resulted in contests against different schools, and the colors of red and white were used to differentiate the individual contestants or even the schools themselves, often by the wearing of small red or white ribbons.
The colors red and white are an enduring symbol of Japanese Culture, and they have been used in Judo since Jigoro Kano started the first ever Judo tournament, the Red and White Tournament, known as the Kohaku Shiai, in 1884. This tournament seems to have had a direct influence on Kano's use of the Kohaku Obi.
The "Kohaku Obi" — Red and White Paneled Belt
Generally, the Kohaku Obi is often worn for special ceremonial occasions only, it is not a requirement to be worn at all by Kodansha and the black belt still remains the standard attire for all the Yudansha (Black belts) ranks regardless of level.
The uses of the combined colors of red and white on one belt also have been a symbolic representation of the principles of harmony suggested by the balance of yin and yang. This use of contrasting colors is used throughout Japanese culture.
These colors represented the deeper symbolic philosophy of Yin and Yang, or opposite forces. The white representing purity, peace and calm whilst the red represents the intense desire to train and the sacrifices that have been made. Therefore the wearer has reached a level where these forces meet, they meet equally united, the opposing of complementary harmony.
Usually it is thought off, that the wearer using the Kohaku Obi is on a ceremonial function i.e. instructing formally, conducting a demonstration, a course or a seminar. If the holder is in general practice, i.e. regular training, randori training or still actively competing, it is the norm to still use the black belt.
In Japan, it is very rare for high Dan ranks, regardless of level, to outwardly display the wearing of the Kohaku Obi unless it is on a formal occasion. The very opposite can be said in the west, where it is common place for Kohaku Obi wearers to use the belt on a general day to day basis, regardless of occasion, although this practice can vary immensely between different associations.
Originally when Kano created the new Kohaku Obi, they were presented only to the 6th — 8th Dan seasoned veterans of the Kohaku Shiai, hence his natural use of the combined colors of Red and White.
Kohaku Dan Graded Syllabus
Generally, in the west, when practitioners have reached the level of 5th Dan, it is unusual for the individual to have to take another formal grading.
Most Judo associations hold an annual review, set up by a steering committee which usually includes members of their National Governing Board of Directors. This committee meets and assesses all current 5th Dan practitioners for suitability for further promotion to 6th Dan, the successful applicants will have had to meet several stringent guidelines, some which will contain minimum requirements such as time in present grade, competition achievement record and such areas as services to Judo. Also other areas such as current practice involvement, coaching ability, leadership, or research, publication, etc.
In some associations, 5th Dan or above can put forward proposals for themselves to be considered for higher Dan rank, in other associations the process is an automatic yearly evaluation of all 5th Dans.
Technical Dan Grade promotions require similar guidelines with the exception of competition achievement record.
The Kodokan, however require all higher Dan ranked individuals to be apt at Judo Kata, the performance of a stated designated Kata is still a requirement of senior grading from 6th to 8th Dan. At the Kodokan, these same candidates also undergo a written or verbal examination prior to any subsequent successful promotion.
The practice of Kata itself has somewhat been lost in the west in most associations, however there is currently a large resurgence towards Kata. The need to perform Kata for Dan grading of all levels, is now becoming a standard within a lot of Dan syllabi.
Beyond 8th Dan
Jigoro Kano also created the solid red belt to recognize 9th and 10th degree Yudansha. Very little is known behind this actual creation; however it is believed that the solid red, signifies the holder as having trained intensely for many years and sacrificed much in their pursuits of the study of Judo.
However for women, the difference between belt colors also still exists, with the solid red belt being an option for a Joshi Hachidan (woman 8th Dan), whereas for males it indicates a 9th Dan minimal.
There are no testing requirements for promotions to 9th or 10th Dan. Those promotions are based on time in grade, achievements and status by the promotions committee. In the entire history of Judo, there have been numerous promotions to 9th Dan, but very few to 10th Dan.
However there does appear to be some definition to constitute the awarding of either a 9th or 10th Dan and they are as follows:
The competitive record of the candidate
The coaching record of the candidate
Refereeing and understanding the rules of competition
Teaching of judo
Creative contributions to judo
Devotion to judo without a break
Kyuzo Mifune, 10th Dan, was once asked what made a person a 10th Dan and he answered "That the person should have added something new to the theory of Judo". Mifune himself was famous for his analogy of the way a ball reacts when pushed, and this was apparently considered to be an important theoretical contribution to the theory of Judo.
Kano also signified the use of a solid white belt for 10th Dan. This solid white belt would be off double width thickness to the usual beginners white belt, to signify the substantial difference and to recognize that holders of this rank would have come full circle....the final objective of any Judo student.
Unforgettable Judo Experience
AN UNFORGETTABLE JUDO EXPERIENCE
by Jennie Tung
"HA YAAA" I banged onto the mat and fell hard on my back. I quickly righted myself, but just before I could regain my balance, I was again tossed to the ground by my opponent. Our sweats intermingled as he reached his hands around my neck and compressed my veins. I tapped his body to signal that he had won the practice match.
As I rest in a meditative seiza (kneeling) position on this orange judo mat, I wonder why I make myself go through such physical torment? I also begin to wonder why I have chosen judo over other martial arts? As I look around the room, I immediately know the answer. It is the people in this class: my sensei (instructor) and my fellow classmates, who have been making my judo learning experience so rich, enjoyable and worthwhile.
Here at the City College of San Francisco (CCSF) judo class, avid judo students are taught by one of the best teachers in the U.S., Mitchell Palacio. Having played judo for forty -two years, Mr. Palacio is not only an accomplished judo player; he is also a successful teacher and coach. His knowledge in this sport and his clever teaching styles allow him to deliver his instructions effectively to his students.
Throughout the year, Mr. Palacio also travels around the U.S. to teach sport clinics and other sport sciences. He is also chosen by the U.S. Olympic Committee to certify judo coaches. Mitchell, as most of his students call him, is vivacious, unpretentious and charming. He makes the learning of this intensive martial art very fun and enjoyable. To no one's surprise, this amazing teacher has been attracting numerous students from various backgrounds.
Students who, as I mentioned before, have enhanced my judo learning experience. Mr. Palacio is not the only person who is teaching judo during class. He intentionally structured the class so that players at different levels can practice together and learn from each another. In fact, Mouloud Boufennara..(Algerian National Team) and Sandro Mascarenhas (Brazilian National Team) and many other black belt players often help beginning and intermediates students to improve their techniques.
When I first decided to take this exotic martial art, I wanted to learn all the jujitsu (techniques) and philosophies. However, I gained more than I had anticipated. The time I spent talking to my fellow classmates during and after class allowed me to get to know them on a personal level. It was during those numerous conversations that I that discovered these people are very interesting, friendly, and down-to-earth. Just like many other community college classes, judo class is also comprised of people from various age groups, ethnic backgrounds and sectors of employment. In the advanced judo class, for example, student’s ages range from mid-teens to the fifty-year old. In fact, there are several fathers and sons who are taking the same judo class. With such great variance in age, there is no doubt that the backgrounds of these students are also quite diverse. Some people are professionals in corporate world, law enforcement and the service industry. Interacting with people of such diverse backgrounds all at once has definitely been a time of growing and maturing for me.
In CCSF's judo, interactions among students do not stop at the end of class. The Judo Club often organizes fun activities, such as canoe trips and sushi nights, for students to socialize and interact outside of class. Every semester, the City College Judo Club also hosts a judo tournament open to all age groups.
Additionally, City College is known for hosting successful tournaments because our students with various management skills always contribute significantly to the organization of these events.
The genuineness of my teacher and fellow classmates has alleviated the intensity that usually accompanies learning judo. I also know that I am developing lifelong friendships with several students as I interact with them during and outside of class. Because judo is a sport that everyone can learn and enjoy, perhaps you should stop by one of our classes or even work out with us one day/night. I can ensure you that you will learn from one of the best instructors in the U.S., and you will be able to practice with some of the greatest people you will ever find.